- Emotional expressiveness is positively associated with perceptions of a leader’s charisma and effectiveness
As noted, emotional expressiveness is the ability to convey emotional messages to others and, we argue, is an essential component of successful leadership. Charismatic leaders use their ability to express emotions to rouse and motivate followers and to build strong emotional ties with them.
- Leader emotional expressiveness is positively associated with a positive emotional climate in followers.
Research supports the relationship between emotional expressiveness and aspects of charismatic leadership and the charismatic leadership process (i.e. emotional contagion).
- Leader emotional sensitivity is positively associated with high quality leader-member relationships
Emotional sensitivity is the ability to read and decode others’ emotional and nonverbal messages. Originally conceptualized as leader empathy (Bass, 1960, 1990), emotional sensitivity allows leaders to gauge the emotional reactions and general emotional tone of a group.
- Leader emotional sensitivity is associated with better assessment of negative moods among followers
We further propose that a leader’s emotional sensitivity can also be important in assessing negative moods in the workplace.
- Leader emotional control is positively associated with leader impression management and effective leadership under stress
Emotional control, the ability to regulate both the expression and experience of emotions, or intra-individual regulation, is a critical component of emotional skill and is particularly important in the workplace (Cote, 2005; Gross, 1998, 1999; Riggio, 2006). Whereas strong emotions, positive and negative, are often freely expressed in the home or in the context of personal relationships, the expression of emotions in the workplace is typically more subtle and subdued requiring more skill in emotional control.
- Leader social expressiveness is associated with leader emergence and upward leader career progression
We propose that social expressiveness, or verbal speaking skill and fluency and the ability to engage others in social interaction, is important for leaders.
- Leader social sensitivity is positively associated with leader career progression and leadership
Social sensitivity is the ability to read and interpret social situations, as opposed to the emotional sensitivity’s focus on reading others’ feelings. Social sensitivity also includes knowledge of social norms, roles and scripts. We argue that both emotional and social sensitivity allow managers to truly know and understand what individual workers and the work group are feeling and experiencing. This helps the leader navigate during interactions with followers and the work team.
- Leader social control is positively associated with leader self-efficacy and ability to enact the leadership role
Social control is defined as skill in role-playing and social self-presentation and is perhaps the most critical leadership social skill. Managing people and leading groups effectively involves a very complex social role. The skill of social control has been likened to “savoir-faire” or “knowing what to do” and is associated with being tactful and socially competent (Eaton et al., 2007).